About 30 children gathered Saturday afternoon to preserve a cultural tradition > At Los Flamboyanes, an apartment complex along La Avenida in Rochester, they shared a meal, candy and a story about El Dνa de los Reyes, Three Kings Day.
The day celebrates the arrival of the three wise men who followed a bright star to Bethlehem and brought gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh to the baby Jesus. Three Kings Day, also known as the Feast of the Epiphany, falls on January 6 and marks the end of the Twelve Days of Christmas.
The holiday is typically celebrated in Puerto Rico, Mexico and other Spanish-speaking countries, explained Latinas Unidas Chairwoman Daisy Rivera Algarin. For eight years, Latinas Unidas and other groups have sponsored the community celebration to keep the tradition alive among Hispanic families in the Rochester area.
“It’s important that we continue to celebrate what makes us who we are,” Rivera Algarin said. The local celebration is an opportunity to expose children to the cultural event and in “passing our heritage and culture along to our children.”
That goal is not lost on Linmarie Serrano of Rochester. On Friday night, Linmarie, said she placed a small box holding grass, for the Kings’ camels to eat, under the Christmas tree. By the time she woke Saturday morning, the box had been replaced with several Bratz dolls. Hours after her family’s celebration, Linmarie attended the community event.
Aurora Ramos, of Rochester said she likes the holiday “because it means we get to celebrate, get and give gifts.” This year, she said, she made her mother a card and a picture. “It makes you feel good when you do something for someone else,” she said. “Plus it’s neat to learn about your culture.”
As Aurora’s mother, Annette Ramos, read a story about the holiday, three wise men, portrayed by Julio Vazquez, the city’s commissioner of community development; Sgt. Carlos Garcia of the Rochester Police Department and Sen. Joseph Robach, R-Greece, entered the room carrying gifts of their own. Moments later, the men, wearing capes and crowns, distributed bags filled with candy. “It’s something we celebrate every year,” said Felix Rivera of Rochester. “The day is special because we spend it with friends and family.”
While many are taking down Christmas decorations and getting ready for the next holiday, some of the Eastern Orthodox Christmas begins Sunday.
After 40 days of fasting, Serbian and Russian Orthodox in Northern Nevada begin eight days of feasting and celebration. The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the nativity birth of Jesus Christ almost two weeks after December 25, because it follows the Julian calendar.
The holiday is filled with traditions and customs. Some are part of the area’s practices. Fasting is an important preparation for the holy day and people refrain from animal products.
“Eat, drink and be merry is not part of the preparation,” said Nona Katzenstein, church warden for Holy Royal Martyrs of Russian Orthodox Church. “We will break the fast Sunday at lunch.”
There is not a lot of gift giving, instead the preparation for Orthodox Christmas is to “focus on our soul, spiritual needs and to focus on the feast that we’re celebrating,” said the Rev. James Barfield, rector for St. John the Baptist Serbian Orthodox Mission Parish. Because members of the church mostly are Americans, Barfield said not many of the passed down traditions are practiced. “Come to church, and we’ll be more ethnic,” he said. “I’m always game for that.”
Christmas Eve, Badnje Vece in Serbian, is the beginning of the celebration. According to tradition, the father and oldest son go to the nearest forest on the morning of Christmas Eve and cut the Badnjak tree. It is burned for prosperity. “Some Serbian churches, they have a bonfire,” Barfield said. “It’s a crossover tradition from the Serbian people. It parallels the Christmas tree really.”
While some Eastern Orthodox members eat a 12-course dinner representing each month of the year, Serbians traditionally eat baked beans or prebranac, fried fish and then dried fruits.
“It is a very beautiful tradition,” Barfield said. “If we had a bigger dining hall, I would probably do that.” Barfield said they will greet each other on Christmas Day with “Christ is born.” And the response is “Glorify Him.”
It’s Christmas today for Orthodox Christians and Eastern Rite Catholics who follow the Julian calendar for religious events.
About 6,000 Londoners in Canada, celebrated Christmas Eve last night on a day when many city residents took down coloured lights and disposed of dried out fir trees.
It’s Christmas today for Orthodox Christians and Eastern Rite Catholics who follow the Julian calendar for religious events instead of the Gregorian dates familiar to most Canadians.
“This is a very holy time and the most important family occasion of the year for parishioners who follow their traditions,” said Rev. Zen Didukh of the Ukrainian Catholic Church of Christ the King on Nelson Street.
Last night, a few blocks from the church, most homes no longer displayed the signs of Christmas. But white, green and red lights still shone brightly on two trees on the front lawn of the Hryckiw family. Inside, the Hryckiw family was preparing to sit down to a meal prepared in a manner learned from their mothers and grandmothers.
In a Ukrainian household, 12 dishes are served on Christmas Eve, all meatless and none containing dairy products. And today they will eat meat, turkey, chicken and pork. The 12 dishes, symbolic of Christ’s 12 Apostles, include a braided bread called kolach, wheat cooked with honey, poppy seeds and chopped nuts, borshch (beet soup) with perogies, fish, cabbage rolls, beans and fruit.
The Christmas Eve feast signifies the end of a period of fasting, said the priest. “Some people fast for five or six weeks. They don’t eat meat or dairy foods for three days a week during that time. It’s a period of fasting, prayer and performing charitable works.”
After dinner last night, they planned to attend mass to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ and other gifts from God. As for Earthly gifts, exchanged by family members and friends, the tradition varies from family to family living in London, Canada.
Some families will exchange gifts (today), but many won’t. That’s because most Ukrainians give gifts, especially to children, on the feast of St. Nicholas in early December. It’s a misconception that Ukrainians take advantage of Boxing Day sales to acquire gifts for their Christmas. Most of them have already exchanged gifts by then. When their Christmas comes, they place the emphasis on God and family.
Carolling is a must on Christmas also. They sing carols at home, in church and at the homes of their friends.
Culture, costumes and ethnic cuisine, it’s all part of today’s colourful Ukrainian Christmas celebration.
For thousands of Winnipeg residents of Ukrainian descent following the Julian calendar, January 7 brings an occasion to mark the birth of Christ more than a week after most of us have put away our yuletide decorations. It’s a spiritual day, largely without gifts and more about meaningful family gatherings.
With a 12-course meal and traditional old-country clothing, Daria Zmiyiwsky and family spared no effort last night to celebrate Ukrainian Christmas Eve.
“It’s such an incredible night and so rich with tradition,” Zmiyiwsky said before gathering with her family and friends, about 30 in all, at a relative’s home. “Everybody comes dressed in Ukrainian costumes. We have a lot of ceremonies we go through.”
Before digging into a feast of a dozen meatless dishes as part of Ukrainian custom, the Christmas Eve ceremonies include a skyward gaze, led by children, to find the “first star”, a sign the traditional meal can begin.
“They’re following the star, that’s the correlation,” Zmiyiwsky said. “We look for the star, and the star is the resemblance of the birth of Jesus Christ.”
Traditional carols such as Boh Predvichnyj, Ukrainian for “God eternal,” may precede the meal, which is led off by one of the elder male family members carrying a sheaf of wheat, or “didukh”, three times around the house before laying it in a corner. That’s what Zmiyiwsky describes as a “representation of the people who have died” in the family, to honour them during the feast.
“It’s symbolic of our ancestors and it represents food, the wheat crops,” said Evhan Uzwyshyn, who carried the sheath and its “grandfather spirit” for his family while wearing a traditional embroidered shirt.
The meal might take 90 minutes to eat, and for good reason. The dozen courses include boiled jellied fish, kapusta soup and pickled herring and are led by kutya, a mix of poppy seeds, wheat and honey.
Keeping this celebration together is a growing concern as the adults grow older, hoping their kids won’t lose the Ukrainian Christmas Spirit as years go by.
“What about our ancestors? What about the people who taught us these traditions? We can’t forget them. We have to make sure our children know about these people and how hard they worked,” Zmiyiwsky said.
Traditions, for some, are sacred and are recognized no matter the changing seasons or changes within society itself.
Facing a great deal of change has been challenging for the parishioners of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of St. Mary the Protectress in Port Alberni. However, a move to a new chapel in Parksville hasn’t quelled their enthusiasm for their traditional Ukrainian Christmas.
Some Orthodox religions throughout the world celebrate the birth of Christ as it is marked on the Julian calendar, meaning Christmas for them falls on January 6 and 7, that is 13 days after the event on the Gregorian calendar, on December 25. For the members of the St. Mary the Protectress church, it is a time with a specific purpose.
“It’s at this time that Orthodox Ukrainians celebrate the nativity of Jesus Christ,” says Father Michael Sokyrka, a retired priest who presided in Port Alberni for 13 years. “There is no Santa Claus, but we have a St. Nicholas Day in December. It ties in, but that is a separate thing.”
Traditions, he continues, vary in each country that follows the Orthodox religion, Ukraine, Greece, Serbia. Sokyrka notes there are some consistencies in how they celebrate Christmas.
The head of the family at sunset on Christmas Eve on January 6, goes outside to gather a bundle of hay, which is put under the dinner table to signify the manger. On top of the table, a place is set for every person in the house.
Christmas in USA > The United States of America integrates different elements from different countries in its Christmas Celebrations. A multicultural celebration! The Christmas Tree tradition comes from Germany, Parades from Latin America, Carols from the English and Australians, Santa Claus from the Europeans and more.
Apart from the general celebration with feasting, caroling, decorating and gift-giving, each family in the US has their individual Christmas celebrations. And even the traditions vary from one place to another within the US. In Washington DC for instance, there’s this central celebration with lighting of the Christmas Tree on the Ellipse. Here you’ll find one big tree which represents the American nation and other smaller trees representing other states. In New Orleans, caroling is the focus of Christmas, thousands throng the Jackson Square each year on Christmas to have a huge group-community caroling around big bonfires lit along the river Mississippi. The oldest city in the US, St. Augustine, Florida, has the whole of the city lit up in white lights on Christmas. No lights except white are allowed on Christmas. Then again, many Americans love to hit Hollywood, California to treat their eyes to the annual Parade of Stars, while others entertain themselves at Christmas concerts or caroling festivities in and around the cities.
Christmas in France > Joyeux Noël. For all the curious, that’s Merry Christmas in French. In France, Christmas is called Noël and Father Christmas is known as Père Noël. Christmas Trees are decorated with red ribbons and candles. Fir trees are also lighted on Christmas. People gather together and feast on meat and fine wine. The French kids put shoes and boots by the hearth for Santa to keep Christmas goodies in them. And nearly every family sets up a Nativity scene at home on Christmas.
Christmas in Spain > Feliz Navidad. Now that’s Merry Christmas for the Spanish speaking population. Spanish Christmas is essentially religious in spirit and celebration. Virgin Mary is the country’s patron saint and hence, Spain observes a pious Christmas festivity. Here, Christmas officially begins from December 8, the day of the feast of the Immaculate Conception. Each year, the Spanish celebrate Christmas in front of Seville’s Gothic Cathedral with a ceremony known as Los Seises or the Dance of Six.
Christmas in Portugal > Portuguese Christmas is much the same as Christmas in Spain. Whatever gifts Father Christmas brings to the kids, are kept at the base of the Christmas evergreen or in shoes by the fireplace. At midnight on Christmas Eve, the Portuguese have a special Christmas meal of dry and salted cod-fish and boiled potatoes. And in the early morning of the Christmas day, they have a meal called Consoada, where seats are left empty at the table for the alminhas a penar or the souls of the dead. This comes from the ancient practice of leaving seeds to the dead ancestors in hopes of getting rewarded with a more bountiful harvest. So boas festas! Have a great party this Christmas and New Year!
Christmas in England > England holds claim to the origin of hanging stockings on Christmas. It’s believed that Father Christmas once dropped some gold coins while coming down a chimney and the coins landed on one stocking hanging out to dry. Since then, the idea of hanging stockings on Christmas held ground and children today, make it a point to hang their stockings for Santa Claus to fill these up with Christmas goodies. In some parts, pantomime is also a popular Christmas tradition. And the wishing of Merry Christmas and gift-giving is of course there in England.
Christmas in Germany > In Germany, the St. Nicholas Day celebration of December 6 is similar to the Christmas celebrations of the English. Apart from wishing each other a Froehliche Weihnachten or Merry Christmas, the Christmas customs and traditions vary from one region to another in Germany. The St. Nicholas Day is primarily a day reserved for the young ones to have fun and get pampered in gifts. After this, the actual Christmas gift-giving kicks off at the Christmas Eve night. Gifts are usually kept under the Christmas Tree and people enjoy a traditional roast goose in their Christmas meal. The Weihnachtsmann, a look-alike of St. Nicholas, brings gifts on Christmas and sometimes these are brought by the Christkind, a fairy child often like baby Jesus.
Today the Armenian Church, one of the most ancient branches of Christianity, celebrates the birth of Jesus. One wonders, admittedly a bit fancifully, if there is a lesson in the Armenian practice for the many Christians who desperately wish that the religious meaning of Jesus’ birth could be rescued from angry culture wars and commercial frenzy.
For the Armenian Church, today’s holy day is the Feast of the Theophany. Other Christians will also be celebrating Theophany as a major religious feast today or, in some of the Western churches, where the day is commonly known as Epiphany, tomorrow. But over the centuries the focus of the day has come to differ within the different strands of Christianity.
What is common to all of them in its celebration is captured in the derivation of the feast’s name from Greek, combining “theos” or “god” with “phainein” meaning “to show forth”. Thus “Theophany” means “divine manifestation”. [“Epiphany” is simply “manifestation”].
In the East, the Orthodox churches, which do not include the Armenian, place their focus on the manifestation of Jesus as God’s son when, as related in three of the four Gospels, he was baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan River. In the West, the focus has come to be the manifestation of Jesus to the Gentiles symbolized by the visit of the gift-bearing Magi.
In the early centuries of Christianity, the many manifestations of Jesus, from the Annunciation to Mary right through his first miracle, at the wedding feast in Cana, and of course including his birth, were celebrated together, at least in some parts of the East, and especially on January 6. In the absence of any scriptural basis for precisely dating these events, that day emerged for symbolic reasons, probably related to the Egyptian calendar that placed the winter solstice at this time.
In the fourth century, however, the birth of Jesus was increasingly celebrated separately on December 25, first in Rome and later in the East. Again, most scholars attribute this to a Christian effort either to appropriate or to supplant the religious themes of the imperial Roman cult of the sun, which was in turn related to the dating of the solstice by the Roman, or Julian, calendar.
Only the Armenians, who were not part of the Roman Empire and therefore not faced with a competing imperial cult, never accepted December 25 or in fact any separate date for celebrating Jesus’ birth.
Instead, the Armenian Church maintained in the one Feast of Theophany the linkage of Jesus’ birth, which will be emphasized in today’s services, and his baptism, to be emphasized tomorrow, when a cross will be immersed in water. Indeed, the liturgy retains echoes of the whole series of “theophanies,” or divine manifestations.
Please Note > The story of dates for celebrating Jesus’ birth is further confused by the fact that some parts of Eastern Orthodox Christianity still follow the Julian calendar in their Church life rather than the 16th-century reformed Gregorian calendar. By the Julian calendar, December 25 falls on the modern calendar’s January 7 and its Eve on January 6, while Theophany comes 12 days later, on the modern January 19. In any event, these Orthodox Churches celebrate the two feasts, marking birth and baptism, on separate days.
Do Armenian Christians in the United States celebrate the December 25 holiday with gifts, Christmas trees and all the rest? Yes, they do, especially those here for generations, said the Very Rev. Vahan Hovhanessian, pastor of Holy Martyrs Armenian Church in Bayside, Queens, although there is also a custom, carried over from the Middle East, of exchanging gifts on New Year’s Eve.
But Armenians maintain a clear mental distinction between the American culture’s Christmas, Father Vahan said, and the Armenian Church’s religious celebration of Christ’s birth on Theophany. Armenians churches will be packed today, he said, people will be lined up on the sidewalk outside Holy Martyrs.
Other Christian leaders may observe this distinction with a degree of envy. Many say that they feel trapped and wearied not only by the commercialization of Christmas but also by the culture warriors who are eager to embrace that commercialization in a strangely conceived campaign to keep the culture Christian or, as Stephen Colbert might say, “Christianish.”
“Instead of putting the Christ back in Christmas, maybe we should just take him out,” the Rev. James Martin, a Jesuit priest and author, wrote in The Philadelphia Inquirer before Christmas. “In the battle between the Christians and the marketers,” he wrote, “the marketers have won, decisively.”
Father Martin’s “modest proposal” was to “give Christmas to the corporations” and find a new date for a “New Christmas”, “a nice, quiet, shopping-free, religiously grounded holiday.” His suggestion? “Around, say, June,” when Flag Day would be its only serious competition.
But maybe the Armenian celebration of Theophany is more promising. Tied as the feast is to the whole panoply of what Christians hold as divine manifestations, it might prove easier to keep the “theos” in Theophany than to keep Christ in Christmas.
Not that anyone should ever underestimate the power of the marketers. How long would it be, after all, before advertisements began appearing on January 7: “Only 364 shopping days till Theophany”?