At Armenian Churches, a distinct observance today

Today the Armenian Church, one of the most ancient branches of Christianity, celebrates the birth of Jesus. One wonders, admittedly a bit fancifully, if there is a lesson in the Armenian practice for the many Christians who desperately wish that the religious meaning of Jesus’ birth could be rescued from angry culture wars and commercial frenzy.

For the Armenian Church, today’s holy day is the Feast of the Theophany. Other Christians will also be celebrating Theophany as a major religious feast today or, in some of the Western churches, where the day is commonly known as Epiphany, tomorrow. But over the centuries the focus of the day has come to differ within the different strands of Christianity.

What is common to all of them in its celebration is captured in the derivation of the feast’s name from Greek, combining “theos” or “god” with “phainein” meaning “to show forth”. Thus “Theophany” means “divine manifestation”. [“Epiphany” is simply “manifestation”].

In the East, the Orthodox churches, which do not include the Armenian, place their focus on the manifestation of Jesus as God’s son when, as related in three of the four Gospels, he was baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan River. In the West, the focus has come to be the manifestation of Jesus to the Gentiles symbolized by the visit of the gift-bearing Magi.

In the early centuries of Christianity, the many manifestations of Jesus, from the Annunciation to Mary right through his first miracle, at the wedding feast in Cana, and of course including his birth, were celebrated together, at least in some parts of the East, and especially on January 6. In the absence of any scriptural basis for precisely dating these events, that day emerged for symbolic reasons, probably related to the Egyptian calendar that placed the winter solstice at this time.

In the fourth century, however, the birth of Jesus was increasingly celebrated separately on December 25, first in Rome and later in the East. Again, most scholars attribute this to a Christian effort either to appropriate or to supplant the religious themes of the imperial Roman cult of the sun, which was in turn related to the dating of the solstice by the Roman, or Julian, calendar.

Only the Armenians, who were not part of the Roman Empire and therefore not faced with a competing imperial cult, never accepted December 25 or in fact any separate date for celebrating Jesus’ birth.

Instead, the Armenian Church maintained in the one Feast of Theophany the linkage of Jesus’ birth, which will be emphasized in today’s services, and his baptism, to be emphasized tomorrow, when a cross will be immersed in water. Indeed, the liturgy retains echoes of the whole series of “theophanies,” or divine manifestations.

Please Note > The story of dates for celebrating Jesus’ birth is further confused by the fact that some parts of Eastern Orthodox Christianity still follow the Julian calendar in their Church life rather than the 16th-century reformed Gregorian calendar. By the Julian calendar, December 25 falls on the modern calendar’s January 7 and its Eve on January 6, while Theophany comes 12 days later, on the modern January 19. In any event, these Orthodox Churches celebrate the two feasts, marking birth and baptism, on separate days.

Do Armenian Christians in the United States celebrate the December 25 holiday with gifts, Christmas trees and all the rest? Yes, they do, especially those here for generations, said the Very Rev. Vahan Hovhanessian, pastor of Holy Martyrs Armenian Church in Bayside, Queens, although there is also a custom, carried over from the Middle East, of exchanging gifts on New Year’s Eve.

But Armenians maintain a clear mental distinction between the American culture’s Christmas, Father Vahan said, and the Armenian Church’s religious celebration of Christ’s birth on Theophany. Armenians churches will be packed today, he said, people will be lined up on the sidewalk outside Holy Martyrs.

Other Christian leaders may observe this distinction with a degree of envy. Many say that they feel trapped and wearied not only by the commercialization of Christmas but also by the culture warriors who are eager to embrace that commercialization in a strangely conceived campaign to keep the culture Christian or, as Stephen Colbert might say, “Christianish.”

“Instead of putting the Christ back in Christmas, maybe we should just take him out,” the Rev. James Martin, a Jesuit priest and author, wrote in The Philadelphia Inquirer before Christmas. “In the battle between the Christians and the marketers,” he wrote, “the marketers have won, decisively.”

Father Martin’s “modest proposal” was to “give Christmas to the corporations” and find a new date for a “New Christmas”, “a nice, quiet, shopping-free, religiously grounded holiday.” His suggestion? “Around, say, June,” when Flag Day would be its only serious competition.

But maybe the Armenian celebration of Theophany is more promising. Tied as the feast is to the whole panoply of what Christians hold as divine manifestations, it might prove easier to keep the “theos” in Theophany than to keep Christ in Christmas.

Not that anyone should ever underestimate the power of the marketers. How long would it be, after all, before advertisements began appearing on January 7: “Only 364 shopping days till Theophany”?

Christmas controversy?

The dream of Christian children worldwide: Jerusalem celebrates three Christmases! That statement is, of course, a bit misleading. The traditional Christian communities, Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox and Armenian, celebrate the birth of Jesus on December 25, January 6 and January 19 respectively, negating the possibility of Santa coming thrice to the same child.

These faith traditions each bring their own customs to the holiday, but share a common focus on the mystery and glory of the event, deemphasizing the commercial aspects so prevalent in the West.

Most Europeans and Americans are unfamiliar with the Armenian Church, which is ironic, because Armenia officially adopted the faith in 301 CE (about 25 years before Rome), and has maintained an emphasis on the Christ-mass, without the more secular gift-giving.

Bishop Aris Shirvanian, spokesman for the Armenian Patriarchate, explains why the Western churches were more influenced by pagan practices surrounding Christmas.

Christmas parties and gift-giving stem from “merrymaking inherited from the old pagan worship of the sun god – Saturn” he said. “Saturnalia was celebrated on December 25 in Rome, while Christians celebrated the birth of Jesus on January 6. The pope of the day, Sylvester, in order to abolish the pagan feast, moved the celebration of Jesus’s birthday from January 6 to December 25, but the Armenian church had no reason to change the date because there was no pagan feast in Armenia on December 25.”

Since the Armenians maintain the ancient date of Christmas as well as the old (Julian) calendar, 13 days are added to January 6, postponing Armenian Christmas until January 19 on the modern (Gregorian) calendar.

The Armenians focus on astvadz-a-haytnootyoon – revelation, since the January 6 holy day celebrated both Jesus’s birth and baptism. Many churches still celebrate Epiphany, the baptism of Jesus, on January 6.

Since Jesus’s birth and baptism are celebrated together, water is a vital aspect of the Armenian feast. Water, blessed by the Armenian clergy, receives the addition of oil believed to be similar to that which Jesus used to clean the feet of his Apostles, and is distributed to the congregants. The oil additive is said to come from St. Thaddeus, who first preached the gospel in Armenia, and is considered to have healing properties.

On January 18, Christmas Eve, Patriarch Torkam Manogian leaves the Armenian Quarter of the Old City with a large entourage and police escort. In centuries past the horse drawn procession stopped at the Greek Monastery of Mar Elias outside Bethlehem to water the horses and allow devotees to refresh themselves. Modern processions keep that tradition, as the Palestinian Authority assumes responsibility for the procession. Greek Archbishop Aristochos notes that the two governments work diligently to ensure Christmas access to Bethlehem. The Greek Orthodox Church enjoys a similar procession on Christmas Eve.

The procession continues to Bethlehem’s Manger Square, where there is an official reception. The congregants enter the Church of the Nativity – shared by the Roman Catholics, Greek Orthodox and Armenians – and a mass is held. After a festive supper and rest, the midnight mass begins, concluding at about 3:30 Christmas morning.

The Greek Orthodox were reluctant to join the Western church in celebrating Christmas on December 25, but eventually did so for the sake of unity. Both East and West agreed to celebrate Jesus’s birth in December and his baptism on January 6. Still, Jerusalem’s Greek Orthodox Church clings to the Julian calendar, so when it adds the required 13 days to December 25, it celebrates Christmas on January 7 according to the modern calendar.

A highlight of the Greek Orthodox Christmas season is the Feast of St. Nicholas on December 6 and a pilgrimage to the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas in Beit Jala. St. Nicholas was a church father born in the late third century who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in about 330 CE. Tradition holds that he slept in a cave in Beit Jala while visiting nearby Bethlehem. The church built over that cave commemorates his pilgrimage.

Archbishop Aristochos states that St. Nicholas’s feast day “prepares us for Christmas.” Since St. Nicholas was noted for his kindness and generosity to children, many believe this contributed to the Western tradition of giving gifts on Christmas. Influenced by northern European immigrants to the US, St. Nicholas’s memory eventually morphed into Santa Claus, akin to the Dutch Sinterklaas.

The Greek Orthodox observe a 40-day fast before Christmas. The fast forbids meat, milk and eggs, but allows fish after the first week until the beginning of the last. This culminates with a great feast on Christmas Day including fried fish, asparagus with egg and lemon sauce, bean soup, and honey cake with nuts.

There are a number of beliefs related to the kallikantzaroi – “bad spirits” according to the Archbishop – that are released during Christmas and wreak havoc until January 6, when Epiphany is celebrated.

These spirits are mischievous, toppling things and scaring people. Still, tradition holds that home remedies can be employed to restrain them. Among these is a sprig of basil wrapped around a wooden cross. Eventually the kallikantzaroi are expelled by the priest on Epiphany as he sprinkles holy water (associated with Jesus’s baptism) around the house.

Like the members of its related liturgical churches, Roman Catholics proceed to Bethlehem on Christmas Eve, celebrated December 24. This is the celebration for which Bethlehem is most noted. Whether associated with the church or not, Manger Square fills with thousands. Multitudes of Muslims also come to witness the event.

But in smaller parishes quieter ceremonies occur on Christmas Eve. Franciscan Father Fergus Clarke is guardian of St. John in the Mountains Church, built at the traditional site of John the Baptist’s birth, and on Christmas commemorates the Magnificat – the Virgin Mary’s extended quote in Luke 1.

“Since we’re a very small community,” he says, “it’s extraordinary that on Christmas Eve our church is full of mostly Jewish people. For example, last year I counted only eight Christians present. Since the church is very small, holding about 110 people seated, when I say it was ‘full,’ I mean standing room only. These Jewish people arrive as early as 11:15 for midnight mass. What is really so edifying is that the Jews, predominately young, stand in complete reverence and silence for almost an hour and half. If you compare it to other churches you wouldn’t see such reverence and patience.

“Remember, the mass is celebrated in a foreign language for them, since we celebrate in Italian. The whole ritual is foreign to them, apart from the homily, which is given in English. But they come from as far away as Tel Aviv, and many call in advance to be sure they’ll be here on time. They come because of some sense of mystery or awe of the divine that comes from the ritual, the music, and their memories – transmitted from their parents, perhaps. For us it’s a very uplifting ceremony because of their presence and attitude.”

Fergus says the Israeli presence contributes to the “peace on earth, goodwill toward men” that Luke says the angels proclaimed at Jesus’s birth. “This year we are having an Israeli choir sing at midnight mass, and two years ago we had a Southern Baptist from Alabama sing a solo,” he said.

Protestants maintain no official presence in Bethlehem, although many visit for interdenominational “shepherds’ field” services convened by the YMCA in nearby Beit Sahur. Many attend local services in Jerusalem, such as those at the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer in the Old City, or at the Baptist Church near the city center.

Lindell Browning is a Nazarene minister living in Jerusalem. Browning’s tradition includes traditional “shepherds’ field” services.

“‘Shepherds’ field’ is wherever the shepherds are in Bethlehem; it’s not a specific field that we know of. There’s no way to know.”

Browning says he and friends read the birth narratives together from the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, often asking one of the young people to read the account of angels singing “Glory to God in the Highest.” They sing carols, pray and share thoughts on the Christmas message.

Browning believes that in Jerusalem there is great stress placed on the angels’ declaration to secure peace on earth. “In this area of the world it’s something we pray for, something we want to see happen. Isaiah predicted the coming of a man who would be called the prince of peace, and that’s our declaration: Christ is the prince of peace for the world.”

Among Christians in Jerusalem there is less focus on the commercial aspects of the holiday. “I think there’s much less emphasis on shopping and much more interest in people that are less fortunate than us. There were a couple of years when we gave each other smaller gifts and gave gifts to needy families. There were other years on which we made gifts for each other so we could better give to those in need. Here too [in Jerusalem] there’s much more time because we don’t have the Christmas activities that we would in the States. So we get together with friends and share.”

For the majority of the Israeli population it is a normal work day. Some Jerusalem Christians do put up Christmas trees, as the Israeli government provides trees free. A few shops decorate their windows for the holiday, but for the most part, commercialism is subdued and the season is pared back to its devotional origins.

The Armenians, proceeding into Bethlehem on their Christmas Eve, summarize the motive for the march as they sing joyously “Great and Wonderful Mystery.” Greek Archbishop Aristochos says Christmas is in memory of the event “by which begins our salvation,” while Father Fergus calls for goodwill toward men. The Brownings and friends quietly find a hillside and try to imagine what the shepherds experienced, expressing their devotion in good works.

St. Nicholas would recognize a Jerusalem Christmas. The real Santa Claus: St. Nicholas was born in Patara, a Greek village (now Turkish) in the late third century. Although it’s difficult to distinguish legend from fact, scholars agree on several points about his life.

Nicholas was from a wealthy fishing family and was generous to young people. A story, regarded as accurate in its essence though shrouded in legend, holds that on three different occasions he provided dowries for poor girls, thus saving them from slavery. Tradition maintains that these dowries, tossed in through a window, were bags of gold that landed on stockings or shoes left near the fire to dry. Similar stories tell of Nicholas’s generosity in saving people from starvation.

Due to a wealth of popular support, Nicholas was elected bishop of Myra on the coast of modern Turkey in the early fourth century. About 330 CE he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and was there for several weeks, often sleeping in a cave in Beit Jala, near Bethlehem. The St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church now stands over that cave.

Nicholas died about 350 CE on December 6 – a feast day that was already being celebrated only a few years after his death. Due to the day’s proximity to Christmas, as well as his generosity, Nicholas became caught up in the season’s lore.

Throughout much of Europe alms were given to the poor on this Saint’s day, and children were the special recipients of gifts. Medieval French nuns would distribute candies on December 6.

Nicholas began the transformation into Santa Claus mostly by way of German and Dutch immigrants to North America. Germanic St. Niklaas became Sinterklass, and eventually Santa Claus. Some less desirable aspects of northern European fable may have immigrated as well: His flying reindeer may stem from myths of the Norse god Wodin riding through the sky.

Reformers like Martin Luther tried to stop the metamorphosis, hoping to portray the baby Jesus (Christkindl in German) as the gift giver. Kris Kringle, derived from that German word, is now a synonym for Santa.

Nicholas’s image in Dutch-influenced New York changed from pious churchman to elf-like gift bearer. This picture became formalized by a few poems, notably the Christmas favorite “A Visit from St. Nicholas” (now known as “The Night before Christmas”) in 1823.

Currently burdened by commercialism, it’s hard to envision Santa’s prototype, the generous and devout Nicholas, making the dangerous trip to the Holy Land and sleeping in a cave in order to worship at the site of the first Christmas.

East is East and West is West: The early church can be roughly divided into East and West. The Eastern church, later Byzantium and the Eastern Orthodox liturgies, maintained different holidays, traditions and even doctrines than the Western church, which remained bound to Rome and the pope. Among the points of disagreement was the proper dating of Jesus’s birth – Christmas Day.

There is an ancient Jewish tradition that a prophet dies on the day of his conception, and the early church applied this formula to Jesus. Eastern and Western churches, through various and often questionable reasoning, determined respectively that Jesus died on April 6 and March 25. The Roman Catholic Church still celebrates the latter date as the Annunciation of the Birth. Adding nine months of pregnancy to those dates results in a December 25 or January 6 Christmas.

Scholars also hold that the December 25 date was especially appealing to the Western church because it replaced the birthday of Sol Invictus (invincible sun). Romans thought that on that day the sun began its ascent and the days began to lengthen. The pagan ceremony contained much revelry, drinking and immorality which the early church couldn’t condone. Sun worship was outlawed under penalty of death, in the hope that worship of the Son would replace it.

Clearly that did occur, but not without echoes of the pagan traditions surviving. Imbibing and, to a lesser degree, gift-giving and holiday lights are related to the pre-Christian feast. Still, the Eastern church maintained the January 6 date and combined it with Epiphany, the day of Jesus’s baptism.

Eventually, under pressure from the Western church as well as its own clergy’s inability to go to both the Jordan River and Bethlehem on the same day, a compromise was reached in the middle of the fifth century. Christmas would be celebrated December 25 and Epiphany on January 6 by both churches. This is simple enough, but when the Julian calendar was replaced by the Gregorian one, the Eastern church in Jerusalem continued using the old calendar. This results in a January 7 Christmas (December 25 plus 13 days).

Armenians refused the compromise, maintaining both the old January 6 date as well as the Julian calendar. Consequently Armenians celebrate Christmas on January 19 (January 6 plus 13 days).

About the Christmas Story and The Epiphany

Early Christians had no celebration for the birth of Jesus, because the date was unknown.

In about the fourth century, December 25 was designated as Jesus’ date of birth, possibly because it had been the day of the pagan festival Sol Invictus, which followed the winter solstice and marked the sun’s annual triumph against winter darkness.

The biblical story of the Epiphany is in Chapter Two of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. The Bible doesn’t say how many Magi followed the star until they found the newborn Jesus, but through the years the number three has been adopted in Christian tradition since they brought three gifts, gold, frankincense and myrrh. The story says the Magi, wise men, came from the East and followed the star in search of the newborn King.

The three men are believed to have been astrologers and their submission to Jesus often is viewed as the submission of magical arts and superstition to the Lord. Because the Magi apparently arrived after Christ was born, the date of January 6 was adopted in about the fifth century.

In Orthodox Christianity, January 6 signifies the baptism of Jesus, while mainstream Christianity typically acknowledges the baptism after the visit of the Magi, this year on January 8.

Numerous Epiphany traditions have been adopted by various cultures through the years. One that’s popular in Europe includes blessing homes by writing the year, with the symbols C + M + B in chalk above the front door of homes, a practice sometimes called called smudging.

This year, that symbolism would read: 20 C + M + B 07, said Peggy Guerrero of Jordan Ministries, who uses smudging each January 6 at her family’s home.

Some believe the letters stand for the names of the three Magi later adopted by tradition, Caspar, Melchior and Balthazar.

Others say they symbolize the Latin phrase “Christus Mansionem Benedicat” which means “May Christ bless this house”.

Feast of the Epiphany

On the 12th and last day of Christmas, it is customary to take down Christmas trees and other Christmas decorations as a way of marking the end of the season.

Gathering all the Christmas trees together and making a bonfire of them has been understood in some places as a means to secure God’s blessing on the fruits of the earth.

For Christians, the day after the 12th day of Christmas is called the Feast of the Epiphany, or the Manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles. The gospel reading for this day tells the story of the Three Kings being guided by the star to the Christ child.

The symbol of light has been brought into the celebration of this feast at various times through the dramatic lighting of torches and candles, so that from early on it has been known informally as the “Feast of Lights.”

The bonfire made by the burning of the Christmas trees on the eve of Epiphany can be understood as a way of carrying on this tradition.

Epiphany celebrations in Greece and Cyprus

Epiphany is a day full of symbolisms and traditions, during which our Church celebrates Jesus’ baptism in Jordan River by John the Baptist.

According to our popular tradition this is the day that the Elves, who have caused much discomfort to people during the holidays, leave the Earth. The celebration of this day has a particular protocol. In Athens, Mayor Bakoyannis will be present at the ceremony for the benediction of waters which will take place on Thursday at 10.30 in Dexameni in Kolonaki. After that, at 11.30, the Mayor will attend the ceremony taking place at the swimming pool of the National Gymnastics Club.

The feast of Epiphany is one of the oldest celebrations of the Christian Church. It was established in the 2nd century and it refers to the revelation of the Holy Trinity during Christ’s baptism. That is when the Holy Spirit appeared as a dove and sat on Jesus, while from above the voice of God was indicating Him as His beloved Son and His Chosen on Earth. It was established to be celebrated on January 6th, probably in order to coincide with the idolatrous celebrations of the early Christian years and to replace them.

During the first two centuries, the Christians also celebrated the Birth of Christ on the same day, but since the mid 4th century, when Pope Julius set December 25th as Christmas day, the feast of Epiphany has been celebrated separately. The Orthodox Church performs on this day the benediction of waters in the sea, in lakes, in rivers, even in water tanks. The name “Illuminations” (“Fota” in Greek), which we commonly use, has been established because on the day before the Epiphany the Church used to baptize the catechumen.

For all Greeks this day is connected with the casting of the Cross in the sea and with the effort of the bold ones to retrieve it from the – frozen this time of year – waters. The joy of the person who manages to get to the Cross first is a great one and the blessings of the priest accompany him for the whole year. On the day before the Epiphany, the neighborhood priest passes by the houses of his cogeneration in order to perform the customary blessing. It is the day that … the Elves fear the most – if we want to turn from our religious tradition to our folk one.

For more than two weeks the Elves are on Earth and they bother people with the capers they are pulling. During all these days they try to hurt people, but they do not succeed – clumsy as they are. The priest’s appearance in the houses on Epiphany day gives them the… finishing stroke and they disappear for once more in the bowels of the Earth. This is how the circle of tradition restarts until next Christmas when they will climb up again…

Epiphany in Greece > The Kalikantzaroi

Epiphany in Greece is known as Theofania or Fota. The first sanctification of the Epiphany (The Enlightenment) takes place in church on the eve of the holiday. Afterwards, the priest goes from house to house holding a cross and a basil branch. As he walks through each house, he uses the basil to sprinkle (bless) all the areas of the home.

An old custom in Crete, which is almost forgotten today, was the preparation of the fotokoliva (boiled wheat with peas) on the eve of Epiphany. The fotokoliva was eaten by the people, but they also fed it to their livestock, which was believed to insure good health and fortune in the homes.

The big sanctification takes place the following day, January 6, the day of the Epiphany.

A long procession is formed and follows whatever road that leads to a body of water – the sea, a river or even a reservoir. Up in front of the procession are the cherub icons, followed by the priests dressed in their best holiday splendor, then the VIPs, followed by all the people. In the bigger cities, the procession becomes more elaborate with the addition of music and military contingents.

At the end of the sanctification ceremony a priest throws a cross into the water, thus blessing the waters. Then, those who dare – mostly the younger people of the village – jump in the usually icy water and compete in retrieving the cross. The one who brings the cross up to the surface will enjoy good luck and health for the entire year.

KALIKANTZAROI, THE CHRISTMAS SPRITES > Kalikantzaroi, or the Christmas Sprites, are small blackish and hairy creatures, with long arms and tail, who reside in the bowels of the earth. With a big saw, they compete to cut down the huge wooden stake which holds the earth in place. But the column is very thick and the sawing seems to go on forever.

Right before Christmas, however, they almost accomplish their mission and the column seems ready to fall. Overjoyed by their almost successful effort, but also fearful that the earth will topple over on their heads, they rush to the top to bother and annoy the people.

Thousands of these creatures come up to the surface from every hole or crack they can find. However, they are very much afraid of the light, so they hide during the day. But at night – that’s when they strike! As soon as it’s dark, they scramble from their hiding places to taunt and menace people. Because they are small, some even very tiny, they can get into the homes through chimneys, keyholes, even from the little cracks on windows and doors.

They enjoy lollygagging around in places like oil vats, frying pans, oily pots and dishes, and they really get a kick out of soiling food with their filthy fingernails and leaving their excrement all over the place. About the only good thing that can be said about these nasty pests is that they never steal anything – oh, but what a mess!

Their name comes from the adjective, kalos, meaning good, and kantharos, the word for beetle. The beginning of the myth regarding the Christmastide Sprites can be found in ancient times. The people of that time believed that when the souls in Hades found the door open they would come up to our world and make the rounds among people without any restrictions.

Much later the Byzantines celebrated with music, song and masquerading. Because the people hid their faces they were shameless and behaved boldly. They would bother people on the street, and go into the homes uninvited, pestering the people by continuously asking for sausages and sweets. The homeowners would slam the doors and shut the windows, but the persistent masqueraders would always find a point of entry – like coming down the chimney.

All this activity would occur during the 12 days of Christmas and on the Epiphany. Then, after the big sanctification all would become calm again as the people settled back down into their normal routine.

Today, the Kalikantzaroi disappear during the celebration of the lights, after the waters are blessed by the priests. As those pesky little creatures depart, you can hear them saying: “Leave we shall, because the crazy priest has arrived with his incense burner and his holy water sprinkler . . .”

The Christian Calendar > How a Pope fixed the Calendar

The Calendar of the Christian world began a century before Jesus Christ, by Roman Emperor Julius Ceasar.

This Julian calendar introduced the notion of leap years, however, there were too many and by 1582, the calendar was ten days out of sync with seasons, and this would only become worse.

The name of the current Calendar: The Gregorian Calendar bears its name due to Pope Gregory XIII. He suggested to drop out three leap years in every four hundred years. The calendar will not fall out of step until 5000 AD. A small fix, will keep it in tune until 15000 AD.

Time and Date – Excellent resource for Time.

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